E-Tc 44.1

Toledo, Catedral - Archivo y Biblioteca Capítulares, 44.1
Number of chants: 4869

Provenance: Tavèrnoles
Date: 1020+
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Toledo, Catedral - Archivo y Biblioteca Capítulares, 44.1

E-Tc 44.1

Antiphoner, probably copied c. 1020-1023 at Sant Sadurní de Tavèrnoles for Abbot Ponç at the royal court of Sancho the Great. Elements of both the cathedral cursus and the monastic cursus. Semi-diastematic Aquitanian neumes. 176 folios (foliation skips from 139 to 150, but there is no lacuna). Beginning and end of manuscript missing.

Liturgical Occasions "at a glance" (refer to the index for complete contents):

Ff. 1r-100v: Winter Temporale and Sanctorale. 1r-24v, Advent 4 to Octave of Epiphany (8r, Christmas; 12v, Stephen); 25r, Hilary; 28r, Ferial Office; 41r, Conversion of Paul; 47r, Septuagesima; 53r, Ash Wednesday; 71r, Maundy Thursday; 76r, Easter; 85r, Ascension; 89r, Orientius; 92r, Georgius; 92v, Pontius; 93v, Pentecost; 96r, Sundays after Pentecost.

Ff. 100v-157v: Summer Sanctorale. 100v, Marcellinus and Peter; 113v, Sixtus; 115r, Laurence; 121, Arnulfus; 122v, Julianus; 130r, Quintinus; 130v, All Saints; 138r, Bricius; 151v, Saturninus; 154v, Octave of Saturninus.

Ff. 157v-174r: Common of Saints. 160r, Antiphons "ad Benedicite"; 169v, Common of Kings; 170v, Dedication of a Church. Ff. 174r-177v: Invitatory tones. Ff. 178r-178v: Beheading of John the Baptist. Ff. 178v-186v: Summer Histories.

Toledo 44.1, in its current state, begins with the end of the second responsory for the fourth Sunday of Advent. The first two folios have a portion torn away, leaving gaps in the index where some chants were lost. The end of the manuscript is also missing: it breaks off in the series of responsories for Tobit.

Toledo 44.1 presents special problems to the indexer. The text is written by one main scribe whose understanding of Latin appears to have been less than perfect. In many places, the text does not make sense: for example, "t" is frequently omitted from verbs and added to other words, as in "Iba...furiat" for "Ibat...furia" (f. 41r). As far as possible, these scribal mistakes have been corrected; however, in some cases the Latin is so garbled that an intended reading could not be reconstructed.

In addition, rubrics are frequently unclear or omitted altogether. In most cases, the correct rubric can be determined from the context; but in cases where there is a series of incipits, the rubrics have had to be reconstructed through comparison with other similar manuscripts.

This manuscript has features which indicate that is has been compiled from more than one source. The resulting anthology of chants often has more items than are needed for each liturgical position. This feature is most apparent in the Ferial Office where as many as four antiphons may be presented for a single psalm.

The cursus of Toledo 44.1 is mixed. The Ferial Office is organized according to the cathedral cursus with no trace of the monastic cursus except for a few isolated chants. The Offices for St. Hilary and the Invention of Stephen are also clearly cathedral and several other Offices suggest the cathedral cursus. On the other hand, twenty-two Offices appear to be divided into nocturnes according to the monastic cursus. Pentecost has two Matins services--the first according to the cathedral cursus, the second according to the monastic cursus. All Saints' has three Offices, one of the cathedral cursus, one of the monastic cursus, and one which is not clear.

Each chant not found in CAO is assigned an arbitrary number prefixed by an "aqu". Since this manuscript shares a common Aquitanian tradition with Toledo 44.2, the chants not included in CAO that also occur in Toledo 44.2 are cross- referenced by "44.2" in the 131-column version of the index, but have a separate identification number (with the prefix "aqi" and a different number) in the index to Toledo 44.2.

Both manuscripts have Offices that are not found in CAO for Hilary of Poitiers (ff. 25r-27r); Saturninus, first bishop of Toulouse (ff. 151v-154r); responsories for Brice (ff. 138r-139r); and a numerical series of antiphons for the Beheading of John the Baptist (added at the end: ff. 178r-178v).

In addition, Toledo 44.1 contains Offices not included in CAO for Orientius (ff. 89r-91r) and the Octave of Saturninus (ff. 154v-155r). The Offices not included in CAO for Pontius (ff. 92r-93r), Sixtus (ff. 113v-115r), Arnulfus (ff. 121r-121v), and Quintinus (ff. 130r-130v) are not notated.

The differentiae are complete where they occur, but they appear infrequently and are usually added in a later hand. The differentiae are labeled with a letter in the left-hand column of the differentia field; this letter indicates the ending pitch of the differentia (ignoring transposition). When more than one differentia in a mode ends on the same pitch, the second and subsequent differentiae are indicated by a number after the letter. The tonus peregrinus is indicated by "P" in the right-hand column of the differentia field. These differentia names are applied to the same "saeculorum amen" formulas in all of the Aquitanian sources indexed by CANTUS (Paris, lat. 1090, Toledo 44.1, and Toledo 44.2), hence there may be gaps in the numbering. Thus, differentia 1.D in the index for Toledo 44.2 and differentia 1.D in Paris, lat. 1090 refer to identical formulas. (This naming system is not carried over to sources that are not Aquitanian.)
In some cases, a lower-case letter appears in the "extra" field to the right of the differentia field. This indicates variations in the differentia, usually of neumation. These letters indicating variants refer only to one particular source, and (unlike the differentia names themselves) are not applied to the other Aquitanian sources to indicate the same variant.

Selected Bibliography

Collamore, Lila. "Aquitanian Collections of Office Chants: a Comparative Survey." Ph.D. dissertation, The Catholic University of America, 2000.

________. "Toledo, Biblioteca Capitular, 44.1-Its Origin and Date." In Cantus Planus: Papers Read at the Tenth Meeting, Visegrád, Hungary, 29-31 August 2000. László Dobszay, ed. [forthcoming].

The computer file was prepared at The Catholic University of America by Lila Collamore and Keith Glaeske.