Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France - Département des Manuscrits, Latin 12044 | Cantus Manuscript Database

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France - Département des Manuscrits, Latin 12044

F-Pn Lat. 12044
Antiphoner from the Monastery of St. Maur-des-Fossés. Early 12th century. French notation on four black lines with F and C clefs. Monastic cursus. 241 folios. Beginning and end of manuscript missing; one lacuna. (olim F-Pnm Lat. 12044)
Liturgical Occasions

Ff. 1r-143r: Winter Temporale and Sanctorale. 1r-5v, Third through Fourth Sundays of Advent; lacuna; 6r, Great "O" Antiphons; 7v, Christmas; 12r, Stephen; 29r, Ferial Office; 38v, Maurus; 51v, Conversion of Paul; 65r, Septuagesima; 71v, Ash Wednesday; 93v, Maundy Thursday; 99v, Easter; 115v, Ascension; 118v, Pentecost; 122r, Trinity; 125r, Summer Histories; 139r, Sundays after Pentecost.
Ff. 143r-226r: Summer Sanctorale. 143r, John the Baptist; 146v, Babolenus; 154v, Paul; 161r, Arnulfus of Metz; 163v, Mary Magdalene; 170v, Laurence; 199v, All Saints; 206v, Dedication of a Church; 212r, Clement; 218v, Eligius; 224v, Translation of Babolenus.
Ff. 226r-241v: Common of Saints.


Paris Lat. 12044 and Paris Lat. 12584 are both antiphoners from the Monastery of Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, which lies east of Paris, and was reformed by Cluny in the 10th century. Hesbert listed the contents of the latter manuscript in Corpus Antiphonalium Officii, where it is manuscript "F." The two sources have much in common but, because Paris Lat. 12044 is later, it includes material not found in the 11th-century Paris Lat. 12584. Paris Lat. 12044 gives antiphons for the ferial Office that match those of the Cluny breviary (F-Pn Lat. 12601). Paris Lat. 12044 contains the following Offices not found in CAO: Babolenus, Arnulfus of Metz (also found in Analecta hymnica, vol. 52, pp. 332-4), Clement (Analecta hymnica vol. 52, pp. 337-40), and Eligius. It should be noted that the Office for Maurus is imperfect: f. 39 is largely torn away, and the chants on that leaf have been reconstructed by referring to CAO. Differentiae are assigned arbitrary numbers.

About the Invitatory Tones of F-Pn Lat. 12044

Invitatory tones are represented in Paris Lat. 12044 in two different ways. The first time each of them occurs in the liturgical year, its first section ("Venite exsultemus" through "jubilemus ei") is written out with musical notation; when the tone appears again, it is given only as an incipit following the antiphon that is intended to introduce and alternate with it. As noted above, several pages are missing from the beginning of the book as well as in a lacuna, and this appears to be the reason certain tones are not present. These tones must have been used with antiphons sung during the first few weeks of Advent, for they are referred to by incipit later on. Among them are the tones called BL, NE, FE, and 2 in the Cantus Database. The repertory of invitatory tones known to the copyist of Paris Lat. 12044 is a fairly conservative one: MO and FE for Monday and the other days of the ferial Office, BL for antiphons of mode 2 or of mode 4, for Sundays and various feasts; NE for other, more recent feasts; CH for Christmas and Epiphany; 5 for Easter, Ascension, Pentecost, and some Sundays; 7 for Sundays in Lent, other Sundays, and one feast; PA primarily for week days in Paschal Time, also during the octave of Ascension; 2 for some mode-2 invitatory antiphons (mostly intended for saints' days); and 3 for a small number of mode-3 antiphons. The one unusual feature is a tone that appeared on a page that is now damaged (f. 39r), where its incipit is no longer preserved. Fortunately the tone is given intact in the St. Denis antiphoner (F-Pnm lat. 17296, f. 346v); and this confirms that the incipit that appears nine times in Paris Lat. 12044 is in fact that of the partially missing tone. This tone is combined with one antiphon of mode 2 and others of mode 4; the occasions on which it is sung range from Babolenus to John the Evangelist, Peter and Paul, the Assumption, and the Nativity of the Virgin. Tones used with antiphons of both mode 2 and mode 4 in this source are BL, MF, and NE.

Selected Bibliography

  • "Antiphonarium ad usum Sancti Mauri Fossatensis," Gallica: The Online Digital Library of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Images and Manuscript Description available at, accessed 18 July 2017.

  • Helsen, Katherine Eve. "The Great Responsories of the Divine Office: aspects of structure and transmission."  PhD, Universität Regensburg, 2008. Available from, accessed 16 Nov 2019.

  • Renaudin, A. "Deux antiphonaires de Saint-Maur: BN Lat 12584 et 12044." Etudes gregoriennes 13 (1972): 53-150.

  • Steiner, Ruth. "Reconstructing the Repertory of Invitatory Tones and their Uses at Cluny in the Late 11th Century." In Musicologie medievale: Notations et sequences, Table ronde de CNRS a l'IRHT d'Orleans-La Source, 10-12 Septembre 1982, ed. Michel Huglo, 175-82. Paris: CNRS, 1987.

Notes on the Inventory
The inventory for F-Pn Lat. 12044 was prepared by Keith Glaeske and Denise Gallo at The Catholic University of America. Full texts were entered by Nan Zhang (Dalhousie University) and proofread by Alessandra Ignesti (McGill University). Volpiano melodies were added by Clare Neil and Nan Zhang, and proofread by Sheila Meadley Dunphy (Dalhousie University). Barbara Swanson supervised the activity of the Research Assistants and provided support. The manuscript description was written at CUA (prior to 1997); it was edited and updated in July 2017 by Debra Lacoste.
Other Editors
Alessandra Ignesti
Barbara Swanson
Full Texts Entered by
Nan Zhang
Melodies Entered by
Clare Neil
Nan Zhang
Kate Helsen
Complete/Partial Inventory
Complete Inventory
Full Source/Fragment
Full Source