Toledo, Catedral - Archivo y Biblioteca Capitulares, 44.2 | Cantus Manuscript Database

Toledo, Catedral - Archivo y Biblioteca Capitulares, 44.2

E-Tc 44.2
Antiphoner from Toledo Cathedral, probably c. 1095. Cathedral cursus. 393 x 264 mm. Diastematic Aquitanian notation oriented around a dry-point line. 220 folios (plus five blank leaves at the beginning, and three unnumbered folios). Four lacunae.
Liturgical Occasions

Ff. 1r-118v: Winter Temporale and Sanctorale. 1r-24v, First Sunday of Advent to Stephen (17v, Christmas); lacuna; 25r-32v, Holy Innocents to Epiphany; lacuna; 33r-36v, Ferial Office (Tuesday to Saturday); 37r- 39r, Hilary; 61v, Septuagesima; 68r-72v, Ash Wednesday through First Sunday of Lent; lacuna; 73r, Fourth Sunday of Lent; 85r, Maundy Thursday; 91v, Easter; 110v, Pentecost; 114v-118r, Trinity; lacuna.
Ff. 119r-172r: Summer Sanctorale. 119r, Paul; 121v, Mary Magdalene; 126v, Laurence; 129r, Assumption; 149v, Geraldus; 152v, All Saints; 161v, Saturninus; 169v, Antoninus.
Ff. 172v-189v: Common of Saints. Ff. 189v-192: Dedication of a Church. Ff. 193r-207v: Summer Histories. Ff. 207v-212v: Sundays after Pentecost. F. 212v: Antiphons "ad Benedicite" and "ad Nunc Dimittis." Ff. 213r-220: Invitatory Tones.


Toledo 44.2, dating from the end of the 11th century or the beginning of the 12th, is among the earliest Office manuscripts to contain melodies written in transcribable form. This manuscript shares distinctive liturgical elements with the Cluniac house of Moissac in Aquitaine. It also has features that indicate that it is a compilation, with the copyist working from more than one model.

Toledo 44.2 contains several chants and Offices that are not recorded in Hesbert's Corpus Antiphonalium Officii. Since this manuscript shares a common Aquitanian tradition with Toledo 44.1, the chants not included in CAO that also occur in Toledo 44.1 are cross-referenced by "44.1" in the Addendum field.

Both manuscripts have Offices not found in CAO for Hilary of Poitiers (ff. 37r-39r); Saturninus, first bishop of Toulouse (ff. 161v-164r); responsories for Brice (ff. 158r-158v); and a numerical series of antiphons for the Beheading of John the Baptist (ff. 134v-135r).

Toledo 44.2 also contains Offices not found in CAO for Geraldus of Aurillac (ff. 149v-152r); and Antoninus of Pamiers (ff. 169v-172r), which is added at the end of the sanctorale. Other chants not found in CAO include a series of Matins antiphons on the feast of Stephen (22v), several responsories for Mary Magdalene (ff. 121v-123v) as well as a series of Lauds antiphons for that same feast that are also found in Sarum. The hymn "Ad cenam agni providi" (f. 92r) is polyphonic.

The folios following 92, 100, and 118 are unnumbered; we have numbered these folios 92w (for recto) and 92x (for verso), etc. in order to preserve manuscript order when the index is sorted.

The differentiae are labeled with a letter in the left-hand column of the differentia field; this letter indicates the ending pitch of the differentia (ignoring transposition). When more than one differentia in a mode ends on the same pitch, the second and subsequent differentiae are indicated by a number after the letter. The tonus peregrinus is indicated by "P" in the right-hand column of the differentia field. These differentia names are applied to the same "saeculorum amen" formulas in all of the Aquitanian sources indexed by Cantus (Paris lat. 1090, Toledo 44.1, and Toledo 44.2), hence there may be gaps in the numbering. Thus, differentia 1.D in the index for Toledo 44.2 and differentia 1.D in Paris, lat. 1090 refer to identical formulas. (This naming system is not carried over to sources that are not Aquitanian.)

In some cases, a lower-case letter appears in the "extra". This indicates variations in the differentia, usually of neumation. These letters indicating variants refer only to one particular source, and (unlike the differentia names themselves) are not applied to the other Aquitanian sources to indicate the same variant.

Because many of the differentia formulas are incomplete, extra fields are employed to record additional information which clarifies the certainty with which the assignment of mode was made. The Extra field represents the number of syllables of "Saeculorum amen" for which musical notation is supplied. A letter may follow this number and records additional information as follows:

m    The antiphon melody has been matched with one of known mode.
x     The antiphon has been cross-checked with another occurrence of the same chant where the mode is clear.
p     The psalm-tone incipit is provided.
v     The antiphon has a written-out verse which provides the psalm- tone for that mode.

The invitatory tones of this manuscript are numbered in the order in which they appear in the tonary at the end of the manuscript. Tones which are not in the tonary are assigned numbers preceded by "M". The Cantus names of the invitatory tones are added in the Extra field. (Several of the tones in this manuscript are unique.)

Selected Bibliography

  • Collamore, Lila. "Aquitanian Collections of Office Chants: a Comparative Survey." Ph.D. dissertation, The Catholic University of America, 2000.

  • Olexy, Ronald T. The Responsories in the 11th-Century Aquitanian Antiphoner Toledo, Bibl. Cap. 44.2. Ph.D. diss., Catholic University of America, 1980.

  • Olexy, Ronald T. et al. An Aquitanian Antiphoner: Toledo, Biblioteca capitular, 44.2. With an introduction by Ruth Steiner. Ottawa: Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1992.

  • Steiner, Ruth. "Directions for Chant Research in the 1990s: The Impact of Chant Data Bases." Revista de Musicologia 16, no. 2 (1993), 697-705.

  • Steiner, Ruth. "The Twenty-two Invitatory Tones of the Manuscript Toledo, Biblioteca Capitular, 44.2." In Music in Performance and Society, pp. 59-79. Ed. by Malcolm Cole and John Koegel. Warren, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 1997.

Notes on the Inventory
The inventory for E-Tc 44.2 was prepared at The Catholic University of America by Ronald T. Olexy, Joseph P. Metzinger, Lila Collamore, Keith Falconer, and Richard Rice.
Full Texts Entered by
Kathleen Nelson
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